By following a strict and balanced diet, diabetes can be cured. A diet for diabetes mellitus will slow down the rate of development of the disease and will have a beneficial effect on the patient's condition. It must be observed constantly. The main methods of preventing unwanted consequences are self-discipline and a varied diabetic menu.
When diabetes has just begun, it is imperative to set limits on foods that are high in carbohydrates and sugar, as these can increase blood glucose levels. But still, regardless of the established restrictions, the body needs a balanced intake of useful components. In this case, doctors prescribe diet food to the patient. Failure to follow a diet can negatively impact your health. Of course, the prescribed drugs must be taken. But a detailed diet for diabetes, compiled by a doctor, will only improve physical condition.
To control hunger, you need to eat often - at least 5-6 times a day and in small portions, including main meals and snacks.
For patients with diabetes mellitus, there are principles of diet therapy. If you have first degree obesity, it is better to give preference to vegetables and fruits instead of flour or fatty foods. It is more useful to season salads with olive oil with the addition of a couple of drops of lemon. To accelerate the metabolic processes of the liver, low-fat cottage cheese, soy, oatmeal, and lean fish should be present in the diet. It is better to prepare vegetable broths from the first courses. You should wait with meat broths or cook soups on a secondary broth. Need to limit the consumption of eggs, potatoes, corn. If there are any, then very few and rarely. As for salt, the recommended serving per day is less than half a teaspoon. And it is desirable that it was sea salt.
Nutritional features for different categories
The fact is that the purpose of the diet depends on the type of diabetes mellitus and the category to which the person belongs: for children, for women with pregnancy, for insulin-dependent people, or with onset diabetes, nutrition varies. Although general dietary principles apply to all categories, each of them requires a separate approach in this matter.
Simple food is the best nutrition for pregnancy with associated diabetes.
A strict diet for people with type 1 diabetes, that is, for people who need insulin, should consist of foods rich in protein and fiber. You will have to limit the intake of salt, fat, fast carbohydrates and foods that irritate the gastrointestinal tract, and also contain sugar.
In contrast to diabetes on insulin maintenance, in type II diabetes mellitus, the diet helps to reduce the calorie content of food and normalize metabolism. With excess blood sugar, such a diet will affect its reduction. The same diet will serve during the onset of diabetes. A pregnant woman's diet should be as balanced as possible without harming the baby. The best diet for a mom-to-be is simple food.
About the glycemic index and calories
The nutritional value of products determines how many useful components will be converted into energy for the body. And the glycemic index of foods indicates how quickly carbohydrates are absorbed, while increasing blood sugar levels. Therefore, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, foods with a low glycemic index should be consumed, since the carbohydrates contained in them have time to be spent by the body and evenly distributed in it. And the carbohydrates in foods with such a high rate contribute to the deposition of fat, not having time to fully convert into energy.
As well as the number of calories, the value of the glycemic index of various foods can be found from tables on a scale from 0 to 100. But in order to effectively plan a diet, you need to take into account a number of factors that affect the change in calorie content and glycemic index. The main ones include:
Cooking in a slow cooker is one of the acceptable ways to heat food.
- Cooking method. The glycemic index of foods increases with heat treatment, especially if they are fried. Products should be baked, boiled, or cooked in a slow cooker.
- Fiber properties. Eating the peels of fruits, grains and beans will slow down the breakdown of glucose, preventing an increase in the glycemic index.
- The maturity of fruits and vegetables. The more ripe the fruit, the more high-calorie it is.
What can you eat?
The initial stage of diabetes may not be complicated if dietary treatment is strictly followed.
Here is a list of foods that can diversify your daily diet menu as much as possible:
- soups based on vegetable broths, as well as low-fat meat first courses 1-2 times a week;
- whole grain and bran bread;
- cooked, steamed or baked chicken, turkey, rabbit, young beef;
- maximum dietary-cooked seafood and fish of low-fat varieties: pink salmon, hake, pike;
- buckwheat, wheat porridge, oatmeal;
- low fat milk and cottage cheese;
- 1 egg per day;
- vegetables and unsweetened fruits;
- homemade sauces from vegetables and dairy;
- desserts and dishes for diabetics;
- any tea, coffee with milk, herbal teas (especially with the addition of rose hips), juices from fresh unsweetened fruits.
What should not be consumed?
People with high blood sugar will have to give up pasta.
The foods that are not recommended for diabetics are listed below:
- high-calorie desserts and pastries;
- chocolate and cocoa;
- jam, jam and honey;
- fresh and dried fruits rich in sugar, such as grapes and bananas, figs, raisins and dates;
- dishes with fatty meat;
- animal fat;
- pasta, rice and semolina;
- smoked and canned;
- dairy products with a high percentage of fat and sugar;
- alcoholic drinks.
How to replace harm?
Delicious and sweet foods should be excluded from the diabetes menu. But harmful products need the right replacement. Diabetic food is the simplest alternative. Options for replacing prohibited products can be found both on the shelves of regular grocery stores and in specialized ones. The table indicates which healthy foods can take the place of prohibited ones.
|Forbidden food||What to replace|
|White flour bread||Peeled rye bread|
|Sweet and desserts||Fruits of trees and shrubs, diabetic desserts|
|Animal fats||Vegetable oils|
|Fatty meats and cheeses||Lean meat, avocado|
|Cream||Low fat dairy products|
Table number 9
The diet involves drinking about 2 liters of water per day.
According to diet number 9, no more than 2, 400 calories are allowed per day. If translated into grams, then this is equal to 85 g of proteins, 80 g of vegetable fats and 300 g of carbohydrates. The diet for suspected diabetes mellitus should be physiologically balanced.
With diabetes and types 1 and 2, the daily water intake should be 2-3 liters at the rate of 30-40 mm per kilogram of body weight. It is recommended to use only purified water, free of pathogenic microbes and bacteria.
Prolonged lack of clean water can lead to dehydration / dehydration. For a diabetic, the loss of 25% of body fluids can be fatal.
Along with clean water, diabetics can use "mineral water". However, it can be different. Table versions with a mineralization of up to 1 g per liter are allowed to drink without restrictions. They contain safe amounts of minerals. Dining "mineral water" stimulates digestion and improves the absorption of insulin. Before use, open the bottle and wait for the gases to "go away" from it.
The diet for a diabetic should be varied.
The best solution is to create a menu for a week or a month in advance. But for starters, you can get by with a menu for every day. When compiling the menu, you should select the most diabetic recipes. Further, from the usual dishes, you can also make up a weekly menu. Correct daily nutrition will increase your chances of recovery. Below is a sample menu for diabetes mellitus.
|Breakfast||Vegetable salad, buckwheat or oatmeal, cottage cheese, boiled fish|
|First snack||Fruits, stewed vegetables, compote|
|Dinner||Vegetable, fish, mushroom soup, fish soup; boiled meat, cereal garnish|
|Afternoon snack||Fruit or vegetable salad, cheese cakes, tea|
|Dinner||Steamed cutlets, vegetable stew|
|Second supper||Kefir, milk, yogurt|
A diabetic's breakfast should be hearty, but overeating and eating heavy foods, which include cereals and legumes, except for buckwheat and oatmeal, should not be. You can make salads, mousses from fruits, berries and vegetables. Dairy products are also the basis for a good breakfast. Lightly fried zucchini in a light sour cream sauce will make a good appetizer.
Mushroom and vegetable soups, soups with cereals or beans cooked in meat broth will serve as a good lunch for diabetics. As a main course, you can eat porridge with salad or meat cutlet. The best salad dressing is olive, flax or cedarwood oils, which are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. You can have a snack between meals with lactic acid products with the addition of delicious fruit.
The evening meal should be light and nutritious. It is better to prepare a dish that will mostly consist of proteins. Healthy lentils combined with vegetables or salads from them are suitable for dinner for a patient with diabetes. If you want to eat late, before going to bed you can drink a glass of warm milk, fermented baked milk or eat some low-fat cottage cheese.
Other dietary tables for diabetes
Table 8 is the best diet for overweight people with diabetes. But this diet is prescribed provided that there are no heart diseases and gastrointestinal diseases. The goal of the diet is weight loss. The consumption of salt and food that whet the appetite are minimized. You also need to drink no more than 1. 2 liters of water. Diet 8 allows you to consume no more than 1, 700 calories per day. These are 80 g of proteins, 70 g of fats (of which one third are vegetable), 150 g of carbohydrates and 6 g of salt.
Doctors recommend to master the 5th table for patients with diabetes and concomitant diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The diet excludes fatty and fried foods, foods containing cholesterol, essential oils, oxalic acid. It is allowed to bake food or cook, you can stew, but in exceptional cases. This diet favors the normalization of the digestive tract, rejuvenation and slows down the development of diabetes.
With a dietary table number 10, you need to give up fatty foods.
For diabetics with cardiac pathologies, a diet corresponding to diet 10. The developed table 10 is designed to normalize blood circulation, heart rate and restore metabolic processes in diabetic patients. Diet for diabetics prohibits fatty, salty foods, irritating foods on the nervous, circulatory system and gastrointestinal tract. Instead, you need to eat food fortified with iodine, potassium, magnesium.
You can experiment with recipes by adding certain ingredients as permitted.
Cut into large slices 400 g white cabbage, 6 small tomatoes, 2 carrots, 2 medium onions and 3 fresh peppers. The resulting ingredients need to be simmered for a short time over a small amount of vegetable oil and medium heat. Served as a separate dish. Tasty with poultry and calf or baked fish. Season to taste.
Baked cabbage pancakes
Cut half a kilogram of white cabbage, add parsley, dill, green onions, 1 tablespoon of kefir, 1 egg, 50 g of slightly salted cheese, 1 tablespoon of bran, flour (until the consistency of sour cream). Mix the resulting ingredients and send to a cold place for 30 minutes. Next, spread the pancakes on a baking sheet and bake until golden brown at 180 degrees.